I find it hard to believe that The Three Great Pyramids in Cairo have been built 4500 years ago during the 4th Dynasty of the Egyptian Pharaos. Here are the reasons why.

In How Old Are the Pyramids, by Joseph Jochmans, the only two pieces of evidence they have are:

(a) A story told by Herodotus (he was known by his contemporaries as the Father of Lies), who visited Egypt in 443 BC, where the Greatest Pyramid at Giza had been built by Cheops (Khufu) by 100,000 slaves within twenty years. Considering the amount of work needed, his mathematics are unworkable;

Herodotus

 

(b) The existence of painted hieroglyphic inscriptions found in the air space chambers above the King’s Chamber, which include the name of Pharaoh Cheops. They were supposedly discovered by Col. Richard Howard-Vyse in 183 when he forced his way up to these chambers using gunpowder. But there are certain facts showing these inscriptions were, in actuality, forgeries. The question has never been answered of why inscriptions appear only in the air space chambers that Col. Howard-Vyse opened, but none were found in Davison’s Chamber, which the colonel had nothing to do with, and were discovered earlier in 1765. Serious problems also arise when we examine the nature of the inscriptions themselves.

Samuel Birch, a hieroglyph expert of the British Museum, was among the first to analyze the air chamber paintings and noted a number of peculiarities among them that remain unresolved to this day. These “peculiarities” represent serious mistakes on the part of the forger. Birch noted, for example, that many of the dubbings were not hieroglyphic, but hieratic. Now, hieratic was a form of written shorthand first developed during the Middle Kingdom, or at least a thousand years after the 4th Dynasty. In perhaps the most blatant example of forgery, in Col. Howard-Vyse’s chambers, one finds great confusion concerning the appearance of the name Khufu.

At the time these chambers were being opened, the pharaoh’s cartouche had not yet been fully revealed from other excavations, and there were several possibilities to choose from. As a result, a number of crude hybrid forms appear throughout the air chambers, such as “Khnem-Khuf,” “Souphis,” “Saufou,” etc. The problem with the first example, “Khnem-Khuf,” is that we know today that it signifies “brother of Khufu” and refers to Khafre, Khufu’s eventual successor. For years, this appearance of a second king’s name has not been explained, and as Gaston Maspero observed in The Dawn of Civilisation: “The existence of the two cartouches of Khufu and Khnem-Khufu on the same monument has caused much embarrassment to Egyptologists.” Adding to this further is the fact that, where the right hieroglyph name for Khufu does appear, it is spelled wrong.

The hieroglyph sources available to Col. Howard-Vyse in 1837, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson’s Material Hieroglyphia, and Leon de Laborde’s Voyage de l’Arabee Petree, incorrectly depicted the first symbol of Khufu’s name as an open circle with a dot in the middle—the sign of Ra, the sun god—instead of a solid disk, which is the phonetic sound kh. Col. Howard-Vyse made the fatal error of copying this mistake in the uppermost of the air space chambers, so that, when strictly translated, the name given is Raufu, and not Khufu. Again, nowhere else in all of Egyptian literature, except in the air space chamber inscriptions, is this aberrant spelling for Khufu found.

 

egypt

 

On the other hand, we have the testament of Pharaoh Khufu himself that he only did repair work on the Great Pyramid. The Inventory Stele, found in 1857 by Auguste Mariette just to the east of the pyramid, dates to about 1500 BC, but according to Maspero and other experts, it shows evidence of having been copied from a far older Stele contemporaneous with the 4th Dynasty. In the Stele, Khufu himself tells of his discoveries made while clearing away the sands from the pyramid and Sphinx. He dedicated the account to Isis, whom he called the “Mistress of the Western Mountain,” “Mistress of the Pyramid,” and identified the pyramid itself as the “House of Isis.”

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Autor : Bojan Zečević

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